Purpose: Keep readers informed about learning orientation research and the application of individual differences in learning theories, models, and design strategies to mass-customize and personalize intentional learning. This whole-person approach highlights the importance of emotions and intentions on learning, in addition to social and cognitive aspects. This online newsletter appears at: (http://training.trainingplace.com/newsletter/Nov2005.htm). The index for these newsletters appears at: (http://training.trainingplace.com/newsletter/index.htm).
2. CURRENT TOPIC: INTENTIONAL LEARNING
3. BOOK RECOMMENDATION - CONNATATIVE LEARNING (EDITORS STEIN AND FARMER)
4. RECENT STUDIES AND PUBLICATIONS RELATED TO THE LEARNING ORIENTATION RESEARCH
5. LEARNING ORIENTATION RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS
6. LINKS AND RESOURCES TO HIGHLIGHT RECENT BRAIN STUDIES
This newsletter presents recent educational and neuroscience research advances to highlight implications for educators and educational research. The special topic for this newsletter is intentional learning. In this newsletter, you will find an assortment of studies that explore individual differences in learning and links to other resources. Hopefully, you will find new, useful items of interest.
2. CURRENT TOPIC: INTENTIONAL LEARNING
How do successful professionals learn today? They have the ability and a recognition of the need to engage in intentional learning. How does one learn to learn intentionally. The first obvious challenge in addressing this outcome is the definition of intentional learning itself. What exactly constitutes intentional learning? How can one distinguish someone who is an intentional learner from someone who is not? What are the key attributes of intentional learners?
A Definition for Intentional Learning
In their seminal work on intentional learning, Bereiter and Scardamalia (1989) use the term intentional learning to refer to using strategic thinking "processes that have learning as a goal rather than an incidental outcome" (p. 363). They describe successful intentional learning as the expenditure of effort in pursuit of personal cognitive goals, over and above the requirements of tasks when the tasks could be accomplished by far less expenditure of effort. They suggest intentional learning results from persistent constructive problem solving towards innovation and goal attainment.
The American Accounting Association 1 defines intentional learning as a persistent, continual process to acquire, understand, and use a variety of strategies to improve one's ability to attain and apply knowledge. This process is supported by a questioning spirit and a intentional desire to learn. We describe the process as intentional learning, that is, learning with committed self-directed purpose, intending and choosing to learn and how and what to learn. Intentional learning involves five attributes of learning: questioning, organizing, connecting, reflecting, and adapting."
In the report, Greater Expectations: A New Vision for Learning as a Nation Goes to College,2 states:
Becoming such an intentional learner means developing self-awareness about the reason for study, the learning process itself, and how education is used. Intentional learners are integrative thinkers who can see connections in seemingly disparate information and draw on a wide range of knowledge to make decisions. They adapt the skills learned in one situation to new problems encountered in anotherin a classroom, the workplace, their communities, and their personal lives. As a result, intentional learners succeed even when instability is the only constant.2
The report also notes:
The intentional learner is empowered through intellectual and practical skills; informed by knowledge and ways of knowing; and responsible for personal actions and civic values... Mastery of a range of abilities and capacities empowers intentional learners as they maneuver in and shape a world in flux.... Intentional learners possess a core of knowledge, both broad and deep, derived from many fields... Through discussion, critical analysis, and introspection, intentional learners come to understand their roles in society and accept active participation.2
Three aspects of intentional learning are the (1) decision to engage in committed, persisted learning effort (self-motivation), (2) the ability to apply and manage strategic cognitive efforts to achieve goals (self-direction), and the (3) extent to which the learner takes responsibility for learning autonomously. Intentional learning depends on one's conception of knowledge, how to connect meaning and use that knowledge to act or create, and the learner's perception of the intended task, activity, or instructional situation. Intentional learners choose to be in charge of their learning. In an intentional learning environment, the teacher's role is to mentor or coach and the learner's role is to question, connect, reflect, and apply knowledge to create, act, and achieve.
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3. BOOK RECOMMENDATION: CONNOTATIVE LEARNING
V., Parent, S., & Breithaupt, D. (2004). Factors
for Success: Characteristics of Graduates in an Online
Program. Western Governors University.
1. What are significant predictors of successful online graduates? If we can define the characteristics that make people successful in our programs we can leverage that knowledge in helping our existing and future students.
2. What are factors that facilitate time to completion? If we can identify what works best to keep students progressing, they are more likely to graduate expeditiously.
3. What are some appropriate strategies for working with different group profiles, and how do we develop an approach of what to do for specific individuals? Much of this will be based on learning orientation theory (Martinez, 2004) and also our own experience working with students.
J., Shrader, V., Parent, S. An
In-Depth Look at Strategies for Mentoring Online Adult
Learners. Western Governors
(2004). The Stress of Online
Learning: An Experiment. Washington State
Molinari, D. L., Anderberg, E., Dupler, A., Lungstrom, N. (2005). Learning Orientation and Stress in an Online Experience. Howard, C., Boettchr, J. & Justice, L Encyclopedia of Online Learning and Technology. Hershey, Penn.: Idea Group Inc. Significant correlations were found between stress and learning orientations.
Blad, P. & Martinez, M. (2005). Seniors Learning
Preferences, Healthy Self-care Practices and Computerized
Education Implications. The Online Journal of Rural
Nursing and Health Care, 5(1) - Spring 2005.
Colin, M. (2005).
LOQ Case Study. Loyola Marymount
(2005). Students Learning Demand:
An Overview. Northern Arizona University.
Magoulas, G. & Sherry, Y. (2004). Individual Differences in Adaptive Hypermedia. Chen (Eds.) in Proceedings of the AH 2004 Workshop. The Workshop on Individual Differences in Adaptive Hypermedia is part of the 3rd International Conference on Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web-based Systems that was held from August 23 to August 26, 2004, at The Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands. The Workshop explores how to embrace the various dimensions of individual differences into adaptive hypermedia, and investigates the impacts of individual differences on the design, implementation and use of adaptive hypermedia systems. Individuals differ in traits such as skills, aptitudes and preferences for processing.
Gordon, D. &
Bull, G. (2004). The Nexus Explored: A
Generalised Model of Learning Styles. Dublin Institute of
Prakash Pillai R. (2004). A Study on Learning Orientation and HRD Climate In Banks. University of Kerala. Training as a competency building measure has a prominent role in the contemporary era. Todays organizations are facing many challenges such as greater competition in terms of product and cost, innovation, export, customer satisfaction, quality of service as well as attracting and retaining competent personnel. In order to survive in these conditions the organizations are required to be more productive, quality conscious, customer oriented and constantly updating in skills of its employees (Biswas 1999:313-14). Thus organizations are forced to invest huge amount on account of training and development. But, then as some studies indicate, there are certain dysfunctional perceptions about the training and learning. Training days are usually paid holidays, nomination to training programme is a punishment, and to be nominated to training one must be idle or influential (Krishna et al, 1993). Raos version was that training has become more of a perk. All these point to the unsystematic approach in the execution of training programmes and question the climate of learning and development in the organization. The other side that merits further exploration are the initiative and orientation of the employees take to learn. Are they really interested in learning? If so what kind of learning orientation they do have?. These are some questions to be dealt with. The banking sector in Kerala is currently facing many challenges in the pretext of greater competition and right sizing. In this context the present study attempts to deal with the learning orientation of employees and HRD climate prevailing in banks.
The major objectives of
the study include:
Research questions: 1. A
good HRD climate stimulates the learning orientation of